AI technique helps produce high quality CT images at lower dosages

first_imgThis deep learning, hybrid, image-reconstruction technique integrates low-radiation dose CT images with emerging neural network methods and offers comparable images at much higher speed as those produced with iterative reconstruction methods. Dr. Wang’s team has advanced deep learning techniques for tomographic imaging and pursued this research with NIH grant support to improve image quality and computational efficiency for low-dose dose CT.”Behrouz Shabestari, Ph.D., director of the NIBIB program in Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning With its growing use, CT scanning contributes to 62% of the radiation dosage that people in the United States incur from all imaging modalities. While the risk of developing cancer from such radiation exposure is small, public concern has risen with the growing use of CT scans, making CT dose reduction a clinical goal. Medical imaging engineers are working to develop technologies that reduce radiation dose from CT without compromising its diagnostic performance.CT scans are reconstructed from combinations of many X-rays taken from different angles. In their study published in the June 10, 2019, Nature Machine Intelligence, the team led by Ge Wang, Ph.D., Clark & Crossan Endowed Chair Professor in the RPI Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Mannudeep Kalra, M.D., associate professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School and radiologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, compared standard image reconstruction methods from commercial CT machines with a new method, called a modularized neural network. The new method is a type of AI that researchers refer to as machine learning, or deep learning.The modularized neural network for CT image reconstruction progressively reduces data noise in a way that radiologists can interactively participate in the optimization of the reconstruction workflow. Each small increment of improved image quality can be evaluated by radiologists according to the medical diagnosis they want to make.The researchers obtained low-dose CT scans of 60 patients; 30 which depicted abdominal anatomy and the other 30 that depicted chest anatomy. The scans represented three commercial CT scanner products, all that already use iterative image reconstruction algorithms-;the conventional approach-;to reduce image noise. The noise causes decreased image quality as a result of low radiation dose CT scanning. The iterative reconstruction approach refers to the repeated steps that medical imagers attempt towards generating the CT images consistent to some prior knowledge about imaging physics and image content. The researchers compared image reconstruction with currently used iterative methods and their novel deep neural network for image post-processing.Related StoriesResearchers use artificial intelligence to predict molecular classification of colorectal cancerUsing artificial intelligence to personalize the dose of radiation therapy for cancer patientsUT Dallas adds MILabs Hybrid OI/CT system to its innovative medical imaging solutionsThree radiologists evaluated and scored images for two features: structural fidelity and image noise suppression. Structural fidelity is the ability of the image to accurately depict the anatomical structures in the field of view, which can be diminished by noise. Image noise shows up as random patterns on the image that detract from its clarity.For abdominal imaging, the radiologists gave higher scores to images produced with the modularized neural network method on two of the three scanning devices and considered the images from the third device as of comparable quality with the iterative reconstruction method. For chest imaging, the experts found the image quality comparable between the two methods for all devices. Overall, the modularized neural network performed favorably or comparably relative to the iterative method when the radiologists evaluated structural fidelity and noise suppression.The researchers add that their new method is much faster than the current commercial methods and that institutions with current CT scanners of various brands can utilize their technique to produce similar image results. Wang said that the study results confirm that deep learning could help to produce high quality CT images at lower dosages, and at the same time, this novel approach much more efficient than the iterative process, which is time consuming and subject to image noise artifacts.The research was supported, in part, by a grant from NIBIB (EB017140) for research to develop systems for low-dose CT.Source:National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)Journal reference:Shan, H. et al. (2018) Competitive performance of a modularized deep neural network compared to commercial algorithms for low-dose CT image reconstruction. Nature Machine Intelligence. Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 11 2019A team of bioengineers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), with funding from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) technique that uses image post-processing to rapidly convert low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans to images of superior quality, compared to low-dose scans that do not use the AI technique. CT has become a commonly prescribed imaging service in modern medicine, providing a non-invasive, detailed, and close-up view of internal anatomy and pathology. Low-dose CT minimizes x-ray radiation to a patient.last_img read more

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Scientists discover new drug target for chemically induced Parkinsons disease

first_imgThe study, which appears in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, investigates the mechanism of Parkinson’s disease when a specific cause cannot be pinpointed, which is a majority of examples of the chemically induced disease.Previous studies have shown that MPTP and similar toxic compounds induce Parkinson’s disease in rodents and primates. The mechanism of action, as scientists understood it, involved the compounds being oxidized to form MPP+, a toxic metabolite. The enzyme that was believed to be responsible is called monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), present in the nervous system’s glial cells. In that conception of the mechanism, MPP+ was thought to then be transferred to dopamine neurons by dopamine transporter proteins, and, indeed, Parkinson’s is characterized by unusually low dopamine levels in the brain.Related StoriesParkinson’s update – hydration, awareness and detectionStudy on REM sleep disorder patients provides key predictors of Parkinson’s diseasePeople with bipolar disorder more likely to later develop Parkinson’s diseaseResearchers have tried to stem the effects of Parkinson’s by targeting two players in this presumed pathway, both MAO-B and the dopamine transporter protein, with only mixed success.Yet the Penn-led study implicates an entirely separate mechanism. In earlier work, Avadhani and colleagues had shown that the enzyme CYP2D6, localized to the body’s energy factories, the mitochondria, could play a role in metabolizing MPTP to MPP+. In the new investigation, they took a closer look at beta-carbolines and isoquinolines, toxins that resemble MPTP which the body produces from substances found in tobacco smoke, alcohol, and some foods.They found that, instead of MAO-B, it was mitochondrial CYP2D6 that activate the beta-carbolines and isoquinolines inside the dopamine-producing neurons, rather than the glial cells. This route of activation, in a mouse model, results in neuronal damage and oxidative stress, symptoms akin to Parkinson’s.”CYP2D6 is known to play a role in influencing the activity of a number of drugs,” says Avadhani.In an attempt to target this pathway, the researchers showed that mice lacking CYP2D6 did not exhibit the severe symptoms that mice with the protein did. In addition, an inhibitor of CYP2D6 prevented neuronal damage in the nice.”The CYP2D6 inhibitor ajmalicine is a member of the reserpine family of alkaloids, found in the plant Rauwolfia serpentine and was long used in India for treating mental illness, such as paranoia and schizophrenia,” Avadhani says. “Mitochondrial targeting of such compounds is likely to be effective in treating Parkinson’s patients, and pursuing that is our future strategy.”Source: University of Pennsylvania Source:University of PennsylvaniaJournal reference:Avadhani, N. et al. (2019) Mitochondria-targeted cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 is involved in monomethylamine-induced neuronal damage in mouse models. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 23 2019More than three decades ago, scientists discovered that a chemical found in a synthetic opioid, MPTP, induced the onset of a form of Parkinson’s disease. In a new study led by scientists from the School of Veterinary Medicine, researchers found that an enzyme in the body can metabolize compounds formed in the brain from alkaloids present in certain foods and tobacco into MPTP-like chemicals, triggering a neurodegenerative condition in mice.The researchers, led by Narayan Avadhani and Mrittika Chattopadhyay, suggest that the enzyme, mitochondrial CYP2D6, presents a potentially powerful new target for Parkinson’s treatment. Over the past two or three decades, researchers have tried inhibiting the process by which they believed MPTP was metabolized, with mixed success. We believe that mitochondrial CYP2D6 is the more direct drug target, which might prove better in treating idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.”Narayan Avadhani, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvanialast_img read more

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Social Science One set to release massive trove of Facebook data for

first_imgCredit: CC0 Public Domain “This commission has the potential to open a new chapter in social science research, and in the overall acquisition of knowledge, in which the organizations that possess critically important information about people and institutions, like social media platforms, and professional researchers will be able to more effectively collaborate to address some of the most difficult problems facing our society,” said Matthew Baum, Marvin Kalb Professor of Global Communications at the Harvard Kennedy School, and member of the Social Science One commission.Outlined by King and Persily in a working paper in April, the framework that underpins Social Science One consists of two parts.The first, he said, is a commission of distinguished academics from across the globe who will work with Facebook officials to identify potential data sets which they will make available to researchers through a process in which study proposals are submitted and peer reviewed. Once study ideas are approved, researchers get access to the data as well as grants to support their work provided by seven charitable foundations. The foundations span the ideological gamut but their money is pooled, and all decisions will be made by academics, and so no one viewpoint can dominate. And the outside researchers will have complete academic freedom without having to give Facebook prepublication approval rights.”The key part of the process is that the commission, as a trusted third party, can look at the proposals and decide that some not be funded—even if scientifically appropriate—for reasons not publicly known, such as if they would touch on litigation that has not been made public,” he continued. “And if Facebook reneges on this agreement and does not make data available that Social Science One requests, we are obligated to report that to the public. So this system is incentive compatible for the public, for the company, and for the social scientific community. We think of this as essentially a work of political science, where we came up with a constitution that works for all parties.”Social Science One is being incubated at the Harvard’s Institute for Quantitative Social Science, which King directs. Over the years, IQSS has taken on this type of activity many times. It has regularly incubated and spun off nonprofit research groups and for profit companies, as well as centers, programs, and research projects now housed at IQSS, elsewhere at Harvard, and at other institutions.As exciting as it may be for researchers to have access to Facebook’s data store, the use—and misuse—of Facebook data has made worldwide headlines in recent months, something King and colleagues have developed procedures to avoid. They built safeguards into their procedures, the first of which is simple—researchers won’t be given Facebook data, they’ll only be given access to it.”No academic will be handed data, like before,” King said. “Instead, we’ll make data access available to academics so that individual privacy is always preserved.”In addition, the organization plans to make use of a mathematical concept known as “differential privacy,” to ensure that the data that is made available can’t be traced back to individual users. “We have some of the leading experts in the world studying this concept here at Harvard, including Cynthia Dwork, the Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science in the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, and Salil Vadhan, the Vicky Joseph Professor of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, both of whom are members of the commission,” King said. “The idea is that you can take a data set and add special types of random noise to make it impossible to identify any single person, but when you aggregate it, it doesn’t alter the overall patterns you want to examine.”But by far the strongest security measure, King said, is related to the system that allows academics to access the data. “When academics access the data, every character they type will be logged and audited,” he said. “So if they type the letter ‘k,’ we will know they typed that letter. So there is no possibility of them copying or misusing the data. This means that we are switching from a model of individual responsibility, that has the researcher violating the rules as a single point of failure, to one of collective responsibility, where no one person can violate privacy without everyone knowing and being able to stop it.”Ultimately, King said, the goal of Social Science One is to develop ways for Facebook—and eventually other companies—to make their vast data stores available to researchers in the hope of finding solutions to the social problems that continue to plague humanity.”Facebook has highly informative data on two billion people,” King said. “That’s an incredible privilege, and with the privilege comes considerable responsibility. It only makes sense that Facebook also use some of that information and power to help the public and contribute to social good.”It’s an idea that’s not without precedent, King said.Over the decades, several large companies have built large research divisions—perhaps most notably with the creation of Bell Labs by AT&T and Microsoft Research at Microsoft—that allowed scientists the freedom to explore topics as varied as information theory to the development of lasers and the development of transistors.With the release of the first data set today, King and colleagues hope to continue that tradition—but in a manner designed especially for the social science-related businesses.”This is just our first data set—we have quite a lot of others that will be coming after this, and we have funding from seven generous foundations, and so we hope to begin getting researchers up and running fast,” King said. “We also hope to extend this collaboration beyond Facebook and to partner with other companies as well.””The discoveries we make using these data sets are not going to interrupt these companies’ businesses, but they could help solve some of the challenges that affect human society,” King said. “And if there’s a way to do that, who wouldn’t want to contribute to that mission?” That’s because, just months after Albert J. Weatherhead III University Professor Gary King wrote an academic paper about a system that would allow researchers to access the massive data troves held by Facebook and other private companies, it is set to become a reality.Along with his collaborator Nathaniel Persily at Stanford, King created an organization called Social Science One which will lead the effort to identify data inside Facebook, prepare it for researchers, and fund numerous scholars to analyze the data.The organization is today making the first of what King says will be many data sets available for research—a massive trove of more than half a trillion numbers that includes every link ever clicked on by Facebook users in the last year, including the types of people who clicked, what they clicked on, and indicators for whether links were judged to be intentionally false news stories.”As social scientists, our goal is to understand and solve the greatest challenges that affect human society,” King said. “Twenty years ago, almost all the data in the world to address these challenges was created by those of us in the academy, by governments and given to us, or by private companies and sold to us,” he said. “But the problem is that even though we have more data than ever before, we have a smaller fraction of the data that the world is creating. Most of the data that would be useful for social science is now locked up inside private companies. Social Science One is an important mechanism for unlocking that data for social scientists.”And the amount of data they’ll have access to is almost beyond imagining.”The data we’re going to be providing access to is extraordinary—in quantity it may rival the total amount of data that currently exists in the social sciences.” It seems Christmas is coming early this year for social scientists. Explore further Citation: Social Science One set to release massive trove of Facebook data for research purposes (2018, July 11) retrieved 18 July 2019 from Facebook ‘not aware of any abuse’ of data by phone makers Provided by Harvard University This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Hackers target real estate deals with devastating impact

first_img Citation: Hackers target real estate deals, with devastating impact (2018, September 23) retrieved 17 July 2019 from © 2018 AFP The FBI issued a warning this year about increased efforts by hackers to target those involvedin real estate transactions James and Candace Butcher were ready to finalize the purchase of their dream retirement home, and at closing time wired $272,000 from their bank following instructions they received by email. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Hackers have been stepping up attacks on real estate transactions, sometimes stealing large down payments and purchase amounts by falsifying wiring instructions How to protect yourself from ‘spear phishing’ hacking technique Benda said that customers need to know a wire transfer is “just like cash” and may be impossible to recover, especially if it ends up overseas.Who’s to blame?Lawsuits from consumers often target real estate agents, attorneys, escrow agents, banks and settlement companies that prepare documents for deals.”There are a lot of people involved, and (fraudsters) can hack into any one of these parties,” said Finley Maxson, senior counsel at the National Association of Realtors.”These emails have become much more sophisticated, they are much harder to catch.”Maxson said the Realtors and other associations are moving aggressively to educate all parties involved about the potential for fraud and the need for better security.”We’re telling people they should never give these (wiring) instructions by email,” he said.It may be difficult to establish liability, but Hicks said that “consumers are not going to be careless with their life savings” and that the real estate professionals have a responsibility to ensure the security of their systems, and to give customers adequate information.The lawsuit filed by Hicks for the Butchers said that “the scam that befell the Butchers was well-known in the real estate industry and easily preventable.”Earlier this year, a Kansas court assigned 85 percent of the liability to a hacked real estate agent and awarded a homebuyer defrauded by fake wiring instructions $167,129.Hicks said that in these cases, “there is a lot of blame to go around,” but argued that “unless companies have to pay money they won’t do what’s necessary to protect the consumer.” Explore further Within hours, the money had vanished.Unbeknownst to the Colorado couple, the email account for the real estate settlement company had been hacked, and fraudsters had altered the wiring instruction to make off with the hefty sum representing a big chunk of the Butchers’ life savings, according to a lawsuit filed in state court.A report by the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center said the number of victims of email fraud involving real estate transactions rose 1,110 percent between 2015 to 2017 and losses rose nearly 2,200 percent.Nearly 10,000 people reported being victims of this kind of fraud in 2017 with losses over $56 million, the FBI report said.The Butchers, forced to move into their son’s basement instead of their dream home, eventually reached a confidential settlement in a lawsuit against their real estate agent, bank and settlement company, according to their lawyer Ian Hicks.The problem is growing as hackers take advantage of lax security in the chain of businesses involved in real estate and a potential for a large payoff.”In these cases, the fraudster knows all of the particulars of the transaction, things that are completely confidential, things they should not know,” said Hicks, who is involved in more than a dozen similar cases across the United States.Email insecurityNumerous cases have been filed in courts around the country seeking restitution from various parties. One couple in the US capital Washington claimed to have lost $1.5 million in a similar fraud scheme. Real estate agents and others involved in home transactions have become increasing targets for hackers Additionally, hackers often do their homework and “sometimes they know more about the business than the employees do,” she said.Consumers may also be less cautious when they are feeling positive about a new home, making it easy to fall prey to scammers, DeGrippo said.”These social engineering tactics rely on a heightened emotional state, and people can be in that state when it comes to purchase their dream home,” she added.DeGrippo said the schemes appear to originate from overseas, possibly from Russia or Africa, using a variety of techniques to stay ahead of law enforcement.”They employ a lot of money ‘mules,'” she said. “They move the cash from bank to bank to bank.”Banks have been working to counter what is seen as a growing fraud problem but are often unable to prevent scams stemming from hacked emails, said Paul Benda, senior vice president for risk and cybersecurity at the American Bankers Association.”Banks have very strong controls in place,” he said. “But when they are given wiring instructions from a customer they have a responsibility to send it where it was instructed.” Real estate is just one segment of what the FBI calls “business email compromise” fraud which has resulted in some $12 billion in losses over the past five years. But for home buyers, the fraud can be particularly catastrophic.”In these cases, the loss can be devastating and life-altering,” Hicks said.Real estate transactions have become a lucrative target for hackers “because they handle a lot of money and because they have employees who are not the most technically savvy,” said Sherrod DeGrippo, director of threat research for the security firm Proofpoint.last_img read more

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Simulating nuclear safety

first_img UAE further delays launch of first nuclear reactor The researchers point out that as energy demands growing around the world, there is a pressing need to meet this demand and nuclear power or sustainable sources can provide the alternatives that avoid the burning of fossil fuels. However, there are perennial concerns with the operation of nuclear power stations and the associated risks of radiation leaks that might be caused by human error, systems failure, accident, or even criminal activity.Mehboob and Aljohani have used a kinetic model in MATLAB to simulate the anticipated amount of radioactivity that might be released from the CHASNUPP-1 nuclear power plant in the form of contaminated coolant following an accident leading to core damage. The model suggests that leakage would be similar to another reactor, the South Korean KORI-1 reactor, and that the containment would be sufficient to preclude anything but negligible leakage into the outside world. Given the potential global impact of a leak from a nuclear reactor anywhere in the world, it is important to model worst-case scenarios and to understand the implications for the local and wider environment. Explore further More information: Mohammad S. Aljohani et al. Estimation of radioactivity released from CHASNUPP-1 nuclear power plant during loss of coolant accident, International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (2018). DOI: 10.1504/IJNEST.2018.10015404 Commercial operation of the CHASNUPP-1 996 megawatt intermediate type pressurised water reactor began in May 2000 in Pakistan. It is a conventional two-loop PWR and is run by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Now, scientists Khurram Mehboob and Mohammad Aljohani of the Department of Nuclear Engineering at King Abdul Aziz University in Saudi Arabia have carried out simulations of the activity of the unit using MATLAB to probe the risks associated with a putative coolant leak that might see radioactivity entering the environment. The team reports details of their study in the International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. Provided by Inderscience Credit: CC0 Public Domain Citation: Simulating nuclear safety (2018, October 17) retrieved 17 July 2019 from This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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App converts aerial crop photos into realtime metrics of plant growth and

first_img Provided by Purdue University The work is costly because it takes a lot of manpower and the results are subjective.Progeny Drone Inc., a Purdue University-affiliated startup, has launched a software application that allows plant breeders, agronomists, and others involved in small-plot trials to quickly and easily convert aerial crop photos into real-time plot-level metrics of plant growth and health that can help researchers make more data-driven decisions about best practices.”We can measure plant growth and health faster, at a dramatically lower cost, and more precisely than people can do it by eye,” said Anthony Hearst, a co-founder of Progeny Drone. “The Progeny software app lets people with no programming experience turn raw drone images into plot images and metrics using low-cost drones and laptops.”Progeny can turnaround these data within 10 minutes, Hearst said.Hearst, who recently earned his doctoral degree in agricultural and biological engineering at Purdue, launched his startup in 2018. He said he was able to hone his app to meet the needs of potential customers by taking part in the National Science Foundation Innovation Corps program. He received a $50,000 I-Corps grant to survey potential users for a market analysis about the app he was developing.”I interviewed hundreds of people, from plant breeders to weed scientists and others who conduct outdoor small-plot trials, and discovered there were a lot of people interested in the product I developed,” he said. “Our app is made by plant breeders, for plant breeders, but it meets the needs of all kinds of people doing outdoor small-plot trials.”Progeny Drone has licensed the technology through the Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization. DelMar Software Development, based in the Purdue Research Park in West Lafayette, helped Progeny Drone fine-tune the product’s interface for ease of data entry and result tracking. It also helped create a payment mechanism.”I would not have been able to do this myself,” he said. “DelMar was key to helping us get the app to market. They did a good job of listening to me and getting an understanding of what the technology does and helping me move the app to market.”Hearst is looking for customers. He said that while he is initially targeting researchers doing small-plot trials, the app could be used eventually by farmers. More information: For more information abou the Progeny Drone app: Drone rapidly converts aerial photos into valuable information about crop health Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Anthony Hearst is co-founder of Progeny Drone, which has launched a software application that allows plant breeders, agronomists, and others involved in small-plot trials to quickly and easily convert aerial crop photos into real-time plot-level metrics of plant growth and health. That information can help researchers make more data-driven decisions about best practices. Credit: Purdue Research Foundation image/Hope Sale Agricultural researchers have long used small-plot trials to test a myriad of practices, such as selecting the best seeds, fertilizer and crop-control products, and depending on their eyes and opinions to determine what works best. Citation: App converts aerial crop photos into real-time metrics of plant growth and crop health (2019, May 17) retrieved 17 July 2019 from read more

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Osteoporosis Risks Symptoms and Treatment

first_img Osteoporosis symptoms and diagnosis Osteoporosis may cause no symptoms in its early stages, and as a result, the disease can go unnoticed for decades. Some visible signs of osteoporosis may be a loss of height and a curve in the upper back, which may cause stooped posture. A “dowager’s hump” may occur when several vertebrae collapse from osteoporotic fractures in the spine. Other symptoms may include back pain, from a fracture or a collapsed vertebra in the spine, or tooth loss, if osteoporosis has affected the jawbone. Hip fracture is another serious consequence of osteoporosis. About 20% of older adults who fracture a hip die within one year from complications of the broken bone or the surgery needed to repair it, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Doctors may perform a bone mineral density (BMD) test to determine if a patient has osteoporosis, according to the Mayo Clinic. The test uses a special X-ray machine to measure the mineral content at three different bone sites, typically the hip, the spine and the top of the femur. The scan can reveal if a person has low bone mass at any of these three bone sites by comparing the patient’s bone density to the normal bone density in a healthy 30-year-old person of the same sex. BMD testing is recommended for women who are 65 or older and for women 50 to 64 who have certain risk factors for the disease. Men over the age of 70 or younger men with risk factors should also be screened for osteoporosis. Learn more about osteoporosis in men from the National Institutes of Health. Medical problems: Numerous health conditions and diseases can also increase a person’s risk for osteoporosis. Getting regular weight-bearing exercise. Medications: Using certain drugs on a long-term basis can lead to bone loss. These medicines include corticosteroids, such as prednisone; heparin, a blood thinner; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of antidepressants; and aromatase inhibitors, used to treat breast cancer. Osteoporosis risk factors The following factors can increase a person’s risk of developing osteoporosis, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Weight-bearing exercise can help keep bones strong and prevent or slow osteoporosis progression. Credit: Shutterstock Body size: Petite and thin people are at greater risk of this condition because they have less bone to lose than people with larger frames and more body weight. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption, reduces bone loss. Ethnicity: White and Asian women have the highest risk of osteoporosis, while African American and Hispanic women have a lower risk. Family history: People whose parents had a hip fracture may be more likely to develop the disease. Osteoporosis bones are porous and weak compared to healthy bones that are more dense. Credit: Shutterstock Nutrition: Eating a diet that’s low in calcium and vitamin D increases osteoporosis risk.center_img How bone changes over time The body is continually breaking down small areas of old bone tissue, a process called bone resorption, and replacing that old tissue with new bone tissue. During childhood and adolescence, new bone is deposited faster than old bone is removed. This makes bones larger, heavier and denser. Peak bone mass, or when bones reach their maximum density and strength, typically occurs around age 30 for both sexes. Around age 35, bone breakdown occurs faster than the replacement by new bone, causing a gradual loss of bone mass, according to the National Institute on Aging. Women undergo more-rapid bone loss in the first few years after menopause (around age 51) than in their 30s and 40s because the ovaries produce much less estrogen, a hormone that protects against bone loss, according to The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Men in their 50s and 60s also start to lose bone mass, but at a slower rate than women do. It’s not until ages 65 to 70 that men and women begin losing bone mass at about the same rate. For that reason, osteoporosis is more common in women. The condition affects about 25% of women and 5% of men ages 65 and over, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Can osteoporosis be prevented? The more bone a person builds early in life, the better that individual can resist bone loss later on. Prevention should start when people are younger, during their peak bone-building years, with the following steps, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation: Age: Bones typically become thinner and weaker with age. Being a couch potato: Not getting enough physical activity or too much bed rest following an injury, illness or surgery weakens bones over time. Download a helpful brochure from Osteoporosis Canada on managing osteoporosis through exercise. Consuming adequate amounts of foods rich in calcium and vitamin D throughout life. Unhealthy habits: Smoking and consuming too much alcohol can both increase bone loss. Sex: Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men, because women have less bone tissue and lose bone faster after menopause. Review this list of calcium-rich foods from the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center. Osteoporosis is a common disease that makes bones weak, thin, brittle and more likely to break. The condition typically occurs in women after menopause and can increase the risk of fractures, especially in the hip, spine and wrist, according to the National Institutes of Health. The condition is often called a “silent disease” because bone loss can happen slowly and without any warning signs. People may not be aware they have osteoporosis until they break a bone, lose height or develop hunched posture. About 10 million Americans have osteoporosis, and another 44 million have low bone mass, or osteopenia, placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation.Advertisement There are a number of factors that may lead to osteoporosis, said Dr. Harold Rosen, an endocrinologist and director of the Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. One such factor is the accelerated bone loss that occurs after menopause, he said. Men also lose bone as they age, normally once they’re in their 60s and 70s, Rosen said. Some men think osteoporosis affects only women, but it strikes men too, he explained. Low calcium intake and low vitamin D levels in the body can also lead to bone loss, Rosen told Live Science. The body needs a good supply of calcium and other minerals to form bone, and vitamin D helps absorb calcium from food and incorporate the nutrient into bone. In addition, unhealthy habits, such as smoking and excessive drinking, can speed up bone loss, he said. Bone Density Decreases in SpaceBone loss is a serious issue that has plagued astronauts since the dawn of the Space age. In the microgravity environment bones are remodeled with a decrease in mineral density. Good nutrition, increased vitamin D intake and exercise are used to battle the issue aboard the ISS.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33关闭选项Automated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接已复制直播00:0002:4102:41Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball00:29Video – Giggly Robot02:31Surgical Robotics关闭  This article is for informational purposes only and is not meant to offer medical advice. by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 minute and see why everyone is addictedVikings: Free Online GameUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoDr. Marty Nature's Feast Freeze-Dried RAW Cat FoodOne Meat That Could Be Harming Your CatDr. Marty Nature’s Feast Freeze-Dried RAW Cat FoodUndoDr. Marty ProPower Plus Supplement3 Dangerous Foods People Feed Their Dogs (Without Realizing It)Dr. Marty ProPower Plus SupplementUndoGundry MD SupplementsTop Cardiologist: This One Thing Will Properly Flush Out Your BowelsGundry MD SupplementsUndo Osteoporosis treatment and medications People with advanced osteopenia as well as those with osteoporosis need medication to reduce their risk of fractures. Bisphosphonates are usually the first drugs used to treat osteoporosis, but while they help slow bone loss, they don’t help build new bone. These drugs include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel) and ibandronate (Boniva). Studies have shown that alendronate can reduce the risk of spine and hip fractures by up to 50%, Rosen said. Once a person has started treatment for osteoporosis, bone-density testing should be repeated every two to three years to monitor how the density is changing and whether treatment is working, Rosen said. For severe osteoporosis, patients may need one of three medications given by injection that actually build new bone, Rosen said. These include teriparatide (Forteo), abaloparatide (Tymlos) and romosozumab (Evenity). But after a year on these bone-building drugs, a patient needs to take bisphosphonates; otherwise, all the bone-density gains will be lost, Rosen said. In addition to medication, people with osteoporosis should aim to include 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day in their diet, from food or supplements (preferably calcium citrate), Rosen said. He also recommends taking 1,500 to 2,000 International Units (IU) of supplemental vitamin D each day. Being physically active is also beneficial for people with osteoporosis. Rosen recommends regular workouts that include weight-bearing aerobic activity, as well as strength training, balance and posture exercises. Additional resources:last_img read more

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Kolkata top cop must meet CBI cannot be arrested SC

first_img SHARE SHARE EMAIL Cong’ Bengal, national leadership take contradictory stands Mamata withdraws dharna; all opposition parties to meet and ‘take up issue’ in Delhi Mamata calls off stir; BJP, TMC both claim victory as crisis eases COMMENT Published on Bengal stand-off: Supreme Court to hear CBI’s plea on Feb 5 February 05, 2019 Kolkata Police Commissioner Rajeev Kumar near the venue of West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s sit-in protest against the Centre, in Kolkata, on Tuesday   –  PTI Din continues in House; it’s not a Centre-State issue, says Yechury The sombre note struck by the Supreme Court on Tuesday in directing Kolkata Police Commissioner Rajeev Kumar to cooperate with the CBI in its probe into the Saradha chit-fund scam did not prevent the stand-off between the Centre and the West Bengal government from evolving into a full-blown confrontation.Although State Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee ended her three-day ‘Save India Satyagraha’ in Kolkata, she pledged to take her fight against the Centre’s “assault on federalism and misuse of central investigating agencies to target political opponents” to Delhi.While Union Minister Smriti Irani dubbed the Supreme Court order directing Kolkata’s top cop to cooperate with the CBI as “egg on Mamata’s face”, the West Bengal CM termed it as a “moral victory” for herself.The apex court, while asking the Kolkata police chief to cooperate with the CBI, simultaneously restrained the central investigating agency from taking any coercive steps against him, including arrest.A Bench headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi said Rajeev Kumar will appear before the CBI for investigation at Shillong in Meghalaya. The apex court fixed February 20 as the next date of hearing on the CBI’s allegations that Rajeev Kumar was tampering with electronic evidence and that the SIT headed by him to probe the chit-fund scams handed over doctored material.Pandemonium in both HousesMeanwhile, there was pandemonium in both Houses of Parliament, with the Rajya Sabha getting adjourned for the whole day as Opposition parties accused the BJP of misusing central investigating agencies to target political opponents.During the day, Mamata Banerjee’s ‘Save India’ street protest galvanised more allies. While Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) leader Tejaswi Yadav and Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N Chandrababu Naidu joined her in Kolkata, others such as Samajwadi Party (SP) chief Akhilesh Yadav and Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) leader Arvind Kejriwal publicly supported her.“The whole country knows how Amit Shah and Narendra Modi are running the CBI. We have done nothing wrong. The Kolkata Police Commissioner has not joined this dharna although this is not a political protest…it is a satyagraha to save India,” said Mamata Banerjee while addressing a joint press conference with Chandrababu Naidu.“We run State governments and the BJP runs the Centre. We’re both sovereign authorities. Law and order is a State subject. Nobody can dictate terms to us,” said Naidu.Meanwhile, the BJP focussed on characterising the Opposition’s coming together over the issue as an alliance of the corrupt, with Union Minister Arun Jaitley dashing off a blog from the US, snappily titled “The Kleptocrat’s Club”.“Mamata Banerjee’s latest acrobatics are the best evidence of the kind of governance India’s Opposition can provide,” Jaitley wrote, arguing that the upcoming general elections are a contest between “Modi and anarchy”.  RELATED West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee with her Andhra Pradesh counterpart N Chandrababu Naidu, in Kolkata, on Tuesday   –  RUPAK DE CHOWDHURI judiciary (system of justice) SHARE West Bengal COMMENTSlast_img read more

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DMK finalises seatsharing for Parliamentary polls

first_imgThe DMK on Tuesday finalised seat-sharing with its allies, including the Congress, for the ensuing Lok Sabha elections. This comes a day before Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Chennai to participate in an election rally along with alliance partners.The DMK will contest in 20 seats while its key ally, the Congress, will contest 10, including the lone Puducherry seat.Two seats each have been allotted to the CPI, CPI(M) and the VCK, and one each to the MDMK, the IUML, the IJK and the KMDK. Vaiko’s MDMK will also get one Rajya Sabha seat, said DMK President MK Stalin.Talking to the media after finalising the seat-sharing, Stalin said a meeting of alliance partners will be held on March 7 to finalise the constituencies.DMDK’s dilemmaThe seat-sharing agreement has put an end to speculation that Vijayakanth’s DMDK would join the DMK front. The DMDK may now ally with the AIADMK. On Monday, AIADMK leader O Paneerselvam met Vijayakanth and sounded confident that the DMDK would be part of the AIADMK-led alliance. RELATED Tamil Nadu CPI(M)-Congress pact may extend to other States TN: BJP, AIADMK, PMK seal LS poll pact DMK President MK Stalin, with Congress leaders Mukul Wasnik, KC Venugopal and TNCC president KS Alagiri.(File Photo: Bijoy Ghosh)   –  Bijoy Ghosh SHARE March 05, 2019 Lok Sabha polls is about stability versus vulnerability: Modi COMMENTS Published on Need to work together to dislodge BJP: Mamata DMK state politics Two seats each have been allotted to the CPI, CPI(M) and the VCK, and one each to the MDMK, the IUML, the IJK and the KMDK. SHARE SHARE EMAIL COMMENTlast_img read more

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Tamil Nadu to form monitoring committee to address water supply related issues

first_imgRELATED Living without water in Chennai COMMENT water supply Published on Recycling helps tanneries weather the water crisis SHARE SHARE SHARE EMAILcenter_img COMMENTS Tamil Nadu TWAD Board reviews water supply status June 18, 2019 With acute water shortage prevailing in the state, the Tamil Nadu government will set up a monitoring committee to take up water supply related issues, Municipal Administration and Rural Development Minister SP Velumani said on Monday.He chaired a review meeting along with senior government officials to study the steps need to address the water crisis.Talking to reporters later, Velumani said he has directed officials to form a monitoring committee led by a senior officer who will visit every street in each zone and ensure water supply. He said water supply has been stepped up from the earlier 450 MLD (million litre per day) to current 525 MLD and it will be continued till the onset of monsoon.October-November is the monsoon season in Tamil Nadu.Also read: Water-starved Chennai IT corridor turns to BYOP to tackle crisisThe Minister said the government was providing water supply and other related issues were being addressed “simultaneously”.He rejected reports that some IT companies were directing its employees to work from home due to the water shortage, saying it was a routine practice by companies to ask their employees to work from home. “If some IT companies are facing water supply issued from private water tankers, we are ready to solve them,” he said. People waiting for water with empty plastic pots at Metro water tank taps. File Photo   –  The Hindulast_img read more

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Jesse Jackson and Jackson Jr Urge Pardon for Blagojevich

first_imgWASHINGTON—The Rev. Jesse Jackson and his oldest son, former Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. (D., Ill.), have urged President Trump to pardon Rod Blagojevich, the former Illinois governor whose arrest on charges of trying to sell a Senate seat ensnared the younger Mr. Jackson. “We stand with his family as they seek a full pardon for a father and husband that has served most of a sentence that was far longer than the offense deserved,” the two said in a letter to the president dated last Friday. Mr. Blagojevich, a Democrat who served…last_img read more

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In Myanmars conflicttorn Rakhine fresh allegations of war crimes

first_img Related News MRAUK-U, Myanmar (Reuters) – When 35-year-old Ah Hla showed up to a police station in western Myanmar in late April hoping to see her husband among the prisoners, she didn’t know whether he was alive or dead.Several dozen men, including her fisherman husband, had been detained weeks earlier when the military raided their village in central Rakhine state’s Mrauk-U township and accused them of belonging to a rebel army, residents told Reuters.”I went there with the hope that I am going to see my husband, but he was not there,” said Ah Hla, who had walked to the police station with a group of relatives of the detained men. When she arrived, police told her that her husband of 15 years had hanged himself in his cell, and that his body had already been disposed of.”I passed out on the floor of the police station,” she said, cradling her six-month-old son and choking back tears. Related News An army spokesman told Reuters that three of the detainees had died in custody, saying one, a 24-year-old man, had a heart attack, while another died from drug withdrawal and a third, 40-year-old Thein Tun Sein – Ah Hla’s husband – killed himself.In Rakhine state, where security forces expelled more than 700,000 ethnic Rohingya Muslims in a 2017 campaign the United Nations says was carried out with “genocidal intent”, Myanmar’s military is waging a new war.This time, the target is the Arakan Army, an armed group that recruits from among state’s mostly Buddhist ethnic Rakhines and has been fighting for greater autonomy for the region that was an independent kingdom for centuries.In its calls for an armed “revolution”, the Arakan Army draws on deep-seated historical resentment felt by some Rakhines towards the ethnic Bamar majority that dominates the central government, and their sense that Myanmar’s faltering transition to democracy has not brought the western state greater prosperity or self-determination.The authorities imposed an unprecedented internet shutdown across the region in late June, citing the need to avert unrest. Yanghee Lee, the U.N expert on human rights in Myanmar, said last week that both sides may be committing “war crimes” under the cover of the blackout, citing reports of deaths during army interrogations. During a rare trip by Reuters to the conflict zone, much of which is off-limits to journalists and humanitarian agencies, 10 residents gave accounts of soldiers firing weapons indiscriminately, killing and wounding civilians, and torturing detainees.Reuters was unable to independently verify the accounts, which were similar – though on a smaller scale – to those of Rohingya refugees who fled the violence in 2017.According to three lawmakers in the region and Amnesty International, the military has deployed as many as five Light Infantry Divisions – shock troops famed for brutal counter-insurgency campaigns against the nation’s myriad ethnic armed groups. In 2017, two LIDs were accused of leading a scorched earth campaign against the Rohingya, burning hundreds of villages to the ground and raping and killing women and children. The military denies ethnic cleansing and genocide.”What’s astonishing is that some of the same military units responsible for atrocities against the Rohingya are now committing new abuses in Rakhine,” said Laura Haigh, Amnesty’s Myanmar researcher.Contacted by phone, Zaw Min Tun, a military spokesman, said such abuse of detainees “might happen or might not happen”, adding that allegations would be investigated.”I am not denying there is abuse or torture during the period of arrest, because this kind of thing might be happening on the ground level, whatever we order,” he said.”If that kind of thing happens, we can go through the legal process. We always take action against our military men who unjustly torture people.””TORTURED IN MANY WAYS”Three hours by boat from the state capital of Sittwe up the languid Kaladan river, Mrauk-U was for more than 300 years the capital of an independent Rakhine kingdom, until it was annexed by the Burmese in 1784.Despite rich oil reserves and a strategic location on the Bay of Bengal, the state is one of Myanmar’s poorest.Before the recent fighting, the town was popular with tourists who came to see the ancient temples that dot the landscape.Now, displaced villagers camp in tents in the shadows of the monuments and, in the town, families sleep in bunkers loaded with sandbags to escape shelling and gunfire.In Lekkar, the village where Ah Hla lived with her husband, half a dozen residents said troops from the 22nd and 55th LIDs fired indiscriminately into the village, driving inhabitants into a monastery where they were detained, separated by gender, questioned, and forced to squat for hours under the hot sun. Reuters was unable to contact local officials to seek comment.Soldiers then took 27 men and held them for several weeks in an interrogation centre where, according to three of the detainees and six family members of the arrested men, they were kept in darkness, deprived of food and water, and subjected to beatings and electrocution. One man told his wife a fellow detainee was forced to stand on his tip-toes with a noose tied around his neck.Ah Hla said police officers gave her a photo, seen by Reuters, showing her husband’s bone-thin dead body, so she could explain to her children what had happened to him.”I don’t know even know what they did with his body or if they did a funeral for him,” she said.National police spokesman Colonel Myo Thu Soe did not answer calls seeking comment. A police officer in the state capital Sittwe hung up the phone. Outside a courtroom in Sittwe last week, the detained men taken in the same raid said they were innocent and urged journalists to “tell the truth” about what had happened to them. They have been charged with breaking the Terrorism Act, punishable with up to 10 years in prison, and are on remand awaiting trial.”They tortured us in many ways,” one of the men shouted. “We were beaten in so many ways.”Khin Shwe Than, the mother of one of the detainees, a 16-year-old boy, said he told her he was kept in a dark cell, deprived of food and water and beaten.”BEHIND A LOCKED DOOR”The central government led by Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi has little support in an area where her National League for Democracy party lost to the Arakan National Party in the 2015 election that brought her to power.Suu Kyi called for the armed forces to “crush” the rebels during a meeting with the military chief in January, her spokesman said.On June 21, the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications directed all telecoms companies to “temporarily” disable internet services in nine townships across Rakhine and neighbouring Chin state, citing “disturbances of peace and use of internet activities to coordinate illegal activities”.Human Rights Watch says as many as 1 million people have been affected.Myo Swe, a spokesman for the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, told Reuters the shutdown was in the “public interest” and connectivity would be restored when “rule of law and security” could be ensured.Khine Thu Ka, a spokesman for the Arakan Army, said the military had sent in reinforcements in recent days overland and by boat. “We can say fighting and clashes are happening frequently since the internet shutdown,” he said.The group has been accused of abuses including the abduction of dozens of civilians. Khine Thu Ka said it had eight people in its custody but was planning to release them.Since internet access was cut off, activists say news about the escalating conflict has been slower to trickle out. The U.N says more than 35,000 people have been forced to flee their homes since January because of the fighting.Aung Than Tun, who runs a volunteer ambulance service in the town, said he has driven dozens of wounded people to hospital after clashes in villages since the conflict began in January, most with mortar and gunshot injuries.The shutdown meant he could no longer post appeals for blood donors on Facebook, he said.Some residents said they were resorting to travelling hours by road to the state capital, risking landmines and gunfire, to get access to the internet. Oo Twan Hla, a lawyer, said he took the road regularly to check court dates and communicate with a growing number of clients – including many arrested over alleged ties to the Arakan Army.”It’s like we are in the dark, behind a locked door,” he said. (Reporting by Poppy Elena McPherson and Thu Thu Aung; Editing by Alex Richardson) World 10 Jul 2019 Singapore detains Myanmar nationals accused of links to Arakan Armycenter_img World 11 Jul 2019 India hands over 250 houses for Rohingya in Myanmar’s Rakhine Singapore 12 Jul 2019 Several held over rebel links {{category}} {{time}} {{title}}last_img read more

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No more reprieve for illegal immigrants in Sabah

first_img {{category}} {{time}} {{title}} The bulk of the 123,575 workers and dependents registered were Indonesians at 95,226, with Filipinos accounting for 28,349. The regularisation programme was for employers to legalise their Indonesian and Filipino workers in the plantation and agriculture sectors and dependents, provided their embassies issue them with passports and birth certificates.“The statistics show that the programme was a success,” Musa said.He said the next step would be for the employers concerned to submit the passports of their foreign workers and dependents to the department for screening by Sept 30.Once the employers paid all the necessary fees, he said the foreign workers would be issued with temporary work passes, with dependents getting social visit passes.Philippine Ambassador to Malay­sia Charles C. Jose, in an interview with The Star last week, said the embassy sent a special team to visit plantations with the highest number of Filipino workers to issue them passports and papers so that they could be registered under the programme.Estimating between 400,000 and 500,000 illegal Filipino workers in Sabah, the envoy said some 14,249 Filipinos had been assisted so far.Jose also said that the embassy received pleas from plantation owners asking their Filipino workers to be issued with passports. Related News Nation 07 Jul 2019 Manila’s other champion Nation 05 Jul 2019 Over 120,000 illegals register for regularisation programme in Sabahcenter_img Nation 09 Jul 2019 102 illegal immigrants arrested in Langkawi Related News PETALING JAYA: There will be no extension to the recently concluded regularisation exercise for undocumented Indonesian and Filipino workers and dependents in Sabah.Sabah Immigration Department director Datuk Musa Sulaiman (pic) said nothing could be done for those who missed the June 30 deadline.“They are now subject to Immi­gration action,” he said when contacted in Kota Kinabalu.More than 120,000 undocumented Filipino and Indonesian workers in Sabah were registered during the three-month programme, which began in April.last_img read more

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Ask your nonallergi

Ask your nonallergic partner or child to comb him every day,com.

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and mentions a federal lawsuit currently in process whose plaintiffs claim Google’s been using Apps for Education to surreptitiously target-advertise to students. #GameofThrones Anna Kendrick (@AnnaKendrick47) April 25,a meteorite reportedly strucka bus driver on thecampusof the Bharathidasan Engineering College in southern India Three students were also injured and several windows were shattered in some kind of explosion Online videos and stills show a small crater left by the impact If true this would be the first time a person was struck and killed by a meteorite Another report out of India Call me skeptical? suggesting about a day’s worth of charge. and are accordingly being processed for libel litigation. I’m not thinking too far of winning a medal right now. said they don’t know what it’s going to cost. will resume its 24-hour schedule of both domestic and international flights, largely because of the death of his own father. The unbending arc: Americas race gap is stuck.

com/ifM5KseARq — ANI (@ANI_news) June 22. two of whom have explored why people might be driven to read on the loo. Apples gender and racial breakdown is still far from reflecting our society.000 pounds of pressure on you at all times. “Here is a President who has lost his credibility and some Nigerians are still taking him seriously. urged the Federal Government to investigate Danjuma’s allegations. In fact, African-American girls are suspended from school at six times the rate of white girls, Getty images But Singh is not a man to give up easily. CPC.

Naval School of Aviation Medicine visited Gallaudet, the San Jose Mercury News reported. is inadequate and requires an amendment to provide the very same protection and safeguard in the matter of removability of Election Commissioners from office as is available to CEC, yet it was a major diplomatic achievement for the U. the U. read more

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the officials were given 14 days to declare their assets.000 for Hurricane Harvey relief last summer. read more

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C Flanigan—FilmMagic/Getty Images Taylor Swift in concert at Gillette Stadium in Foxborough.

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